Thursday 28 February 2008

Some thoughts on dovetails - part I

For the last several weekends, I have been working on our kitchen drawers. I have just crossed a major milestone - there are more drawers completed than remain (only by 1... but it still feels great!). So I have had “dovetails” floating around in my head quite a bit lately.

There was in interesting thread about dovetails in one of the forums a week or so ago. The thread was titled “Skinny pins in hand cut dovetails”. After reading most of the thread - I started thinking on my own dovetail evolution - and the whys and how's of it. I have also had a bit of an epiphany moment sparked by that thread, and it has to do with the relationship between process and efficiency. I am fully aware that I may to step on a few toes with this one - and I am fine with that.

My goal with woodworking and planemaking is to become extremely efficient while continuing to improve my accuracy... and in that order. I make my living in the woodworking field - I have to be efficient. So everything I do is motivated by using the fastest method even if it means a slow initial learning curve - complete with bumps and errors. Sharpening is a perfect example. I made a very conscious decision to learn to freehand sharpen because once you know how - it IS the fastest way to sharpen. Sure, it made for a lot of frustrating sharpening sessions and the dizzying parade of sharpening jigs were quite tempting - but I can honestly say I am glad I stuck to my guns and learned to do it freehand. I am now fast at it, and don't hesitate to stop work to restore an edge. I will write more on freehand sharpening in another post.

Back to dovetails & efficiency. I believe that the dovetail joint is a functional mechanical joint that can be extremely beautiful if well executed. There are a lot of times when dovetails are used and they are not seen - and in these instances how it looks is less important (though they still need to be tight fitting and designed for mechanical strength). The drawer is usually to blame for all the discussion about dovetails - skinny pins vs fat pins, machine cut vs hand cut, spacing, angles, pin lengths etc. This is because these dovetails can be seen, and rightly or wrongly, have come to symbolize the quality of the piece they live in.

I decided that I would hand cut my dovetails for several reasons (in no particular order). I like the somewhat random and irregular look of handcut dovetails - they tell me that a person spent time making this - and I like that. I like skinny pins - especially in contrasting woods - they make everything look lighter and more delicate. I like irregular spacing. I tend to put narrower tails on the outside edges and gradually increase them as they get closer to the center. It means I don't need to do as much math and is really quite fast to lay out. Here is an example;

The tails on the top and bottom are 3/4", 1/16" pin, 1" tail, 1/16" pin, 1-1/4" pin. It makes for a somewhat rounding effect.

Once I made the decision to hand cut my dovetails it meant I needed to be as fast and efficient as I could be. To me, this means the goal is to be able to fit the dovetails off the saw - no paring. My friend Karen was over a few weeks ago and we were talking about this as we stood in a sea of kitchen drawer parts. I commented that I was going to cut to the line and not intentionally cut inside and then pare to the line. If I overcut and there was a gap - so be it. I would not scrap the drawer but live with it. I explained that I felt this was part of my learning process and working towards maximum efficiency. She gave me an affirming nod and agreed. As we continued to talk we realized that there are many woodworking schools out there that teach to cut well inside the line and to pare to get the right fit. Looking at that now - it seems a little off - it is teaching a process where the outcome is consistently a 10 hour dovetailed drawer! It may be beautiful and perfect - but the process strikes me as questionable - not to mention it is unrealistic to expect a client to pay for a drawer that took 10 hours to make. I would much rather endure the pain, suffering, and disappointment of a few gaps here and there knowing that I am slowly, over time, getting closer to dovetails that fit right off the saw (I am aware that I am building drawers for my own use and not for a client - so I do have the luxury of “learning” through my work). So with that in mind - here are a few examples of dovetails I have produced spanning my entire woodworking life.

This was the first furniture project I made with a drawer. The front is cherry and the sides are pine. Drat... it is a bit out of focus:)

These are the drawers on my left handed, shaker inspired bench. There are 10 drawers in all. The sides are 5/8" basswood and the fronts are 3/4" mildly curly soft maple. They are still a little clunky - but the spacing was starting to feel right on these.

This is a drawer in a table I built for my sister and her husband as a wedding gift. Skinny pins have arrived and are here to stay! 1/2" maple sides, 3/4" walnut front. Note the African Blackwood pull... I shaped them by hand... no lathe:(

Which brings us to the most recent dovetail project - the kitchen drawers. I have just finished 5 more kitchen drawers - here is a shot of the stack.

There was a magical moment that happened while building these 5 drawers - I did actually cut a set of dovetails that fit right off the saw. It is pictured below.

There are a few wee gaps - but after they were glued and planed flush, they were gone. And after this set - there was another set of 1/2 blinds and two sets of through dovetails that fit off the saw. This was most encouraging and confirmed to me that this longer road was the right road to take.

And hey... I have 7 more drawers to practice on!


Blogger Stephan said...

I have been visiting your site for a while and this post triggered me to contribute... I totally agree on this approach where the goal is to become efficient and qualified for a job instead on focusing on short term objectives such as making our first dovetail joints perfectly fit... If practice makes perfect, then some pieces must show practicing scars.

I really appreciate your website.



28 February 2008 at 13:36  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Stephan,

I am glad you enjoyed the post. This theme of process, skill, work, learning, etc., is something that is becoming more important to me as our kids get older. Jill and I are trying to lay the groundwork for them to be able to use these amazing things we have called hands. It comes easier to some than others, but we are all capable - it is just a matter of actually doing it.

Best wishes,

28 February 2008 at 16:33  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Best post yet. I can't wait to see what is yet to come.


28 February 2008 at 20:50  
Blogger JL Young said...

Hi there, I've spent the last couple of nights hand cutting dovetails. It took me about 4 hours the other night to cut and pare the pins for the through dovetails on the back of a drawer and the half-blinds on the front of one drawer. So yeah, the process needs to speed up. That being said, this was only my second drawer and my dovetails have improved dramatically since the first drawer.

One thing I felt I did wrong on the first drawer was that after I marked out my pins with an Xacto knife, I highlted the score line with a 0.5 mm pencil. Not good, the pencil is too wide and obscured the mark.

Another thing is that my first drawer had 3/4" sides. However, the added thickness magnifies your errors so I've gone down to 5/8" and intend to go to 1/2".

I use the lee valley folding dozuki saw and was wondering if the thicker blade of a western style push saw would help to keep the cut straight as I find there's a bit too much flexibility in the blade of my dozuki.

Your skinny pins look great and I've been doing this too. The thing about skinny pins is that there's no way to get a router bit that thin, hence a skinny pin is an instant hallmark of a hand cut joint.

Any insights into how to cut pins right off the saw would be appreciated. And by the way, I think your handplanes are pieces of art. It's great to think that someone from Canada makes some of the most beautiful planes in the world.


Jason from Fredericton, NB

29 February 2008 at 15:28  
Blogger Neil....a Furnitologist said...

Like the Angryrock, I've been following your blog. I'm also a big advocate of attaining shop efficiencies and hammer this point at any opportunity, some say I get preachy, but as you have noted efficiency and quality run counter to todays next generation woodworker. When you address the issue with them they will specifically remind you and say, I'm a hobbiest not a pro. I find this such an odd statement. Whether you are a pro or a hobbiest shop efficiency is paramount.

It seems today that the home basement/garage builder looks at quality in terms of spending more time on a build. I have always fealt that you build to your quality level that will continually improves with each build and the more builds you complete the higher the level of quality you attain. I have found this approach to quality/efficiency in conflict with how the new woodworker perceives the construction learning curve today.

Excellent post........Neil

1 March 2008 at 16:51  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Such a neat post. Thanks for sharing. One question though, how can you do a half blind dovetail "off-the-saw" Don't you need to come back with a chisel, to clean out the pins?

3 March 2008 at 08:08  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Jason,

wow - our stories are quite similar. That first drawer in the photo had 3/4" pine sides - and 7/8" thick fronts if you can imagine! Now - even 1/2" seems too thick for sides at times. And yes - 3/4" thick really amplifies any errors.

I also use a knife for layout lines - and then saw to the left or right of it.

After using this very think Japanese saw, with virtually no set to the teeth - I am starting to wonder why set is even needed. The saw cuts beautifully and once I have a 32nd" kerf started - it stays on track perfectly. If you are looking to try a western style saw - there are lots of good ones out there - Adria, LN and Wenzloff to name a few.

Thanks for you kind comments on the planes.

Best wishes,

3 March 2008 at 08:36  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Neil,

Thanks for the note. It is a delicate balance between going slow enough to learn precision, while using a technique that will lend itself to speed later on. I am well aware of the traps of limited time in the shop. When I was working full time (pre-planemaking) - it took tremendous restraint to sit at my bench and struggle through sharpening instead of getting to the project at hand.

Best wishes,

3 March 2008 at 21:41  
Blogger Konrad said...

Sorry for the confusion about the 1/2 blinds off the saw. You are correct - you do need to chisel out the waste and the saw only cuts half the socket. My goal was to get that half saw cut perfect though - and use that shoulder as a guide for the chisel work.


3 March 2008 at 21:44  
Blogger Brad in Ottawa said...


I thought your offensive comments were going to be a tip on peining the gaps closed on your DT's with a hefty hammer!


3 March 2008 at 21:50  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hey Brad,

I haven't figured out how do it yet... but if I do... :)


3 March 2008 at 21:52  

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Thursday 21 February 2008

Another (fun) deviation

I was in Toronto on Tuesday - visiting with some good friends - Anson and Joanne. I was also delivering this little Blackwood infilled XSNo.4. This plane has a few unique features worth noting.

The sole of this plane may look pretty typical - but the material is quite unique - it is pure iron. There is a very skilled blacksmith in town here - and during one of my visits, I asked him if there was a material that would be “rust proof”. He said he had some pure iron from France that might be suitable. So he gave me a piece to try.

This plane is going to spend a good part of its life restoring a boat on the east coast - so rust was a primary concern. I used brass pins to hold the infill in - to eliminate another potential rust area. I used a steel pin to hold the lever cap - I was concerned that a 3/16"D brass pin would not hold up over time.

The pure iron sole was a real treat to work with - much softer than the 01 I usually use. It felt more like bronze than steel. It piened beautifully! I suspect this won’t be the last pure iron sole I use.


Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Conrad,
Beautiful planes. I really enjoyed talking with you at the tool show outside of Boston a couple of months back. I am a chemist but certainly not an expert on metals and their oxidation (corrosion). I am trying to understand the basis for pure iron's resistance to corrosion.


26 February 2008 at 20:16  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Steve,

You are the second person today who has asked about the corrosion resistance of pure iron. I am most certainly not an expert on metals and their oxidation - so I am looking into this as well. If I find anything - I will let you know.


26 February 2008 at 20:49  

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Saturday 16 February 2008

My own R2 unit

Lucas has turned into a bit of a Star Wars nut - almost as bad as me really. We have this funny little game we have been playing for at least a year now - Lucas recites a line from any of the movies (except episode 3 - we heavily censor that one!) and I have to guess who said it. When we started - it was your basic stuff;

“I'd rather kiss a wookie”

“Laugh it up fuzzball” and,

“Blep-bloop-bloop bleep” (in the voice of Lucas - his best R2 impression).

But with each rerun, he is getting more sophisticated in his lines - he has actually stumped me! The other day he observed that R2 is one of the few characters that is in every movie and that R2 is always saving everyone. It was a good observation - and I decided to rename a recent purchase “R2”.

I recently purchased a moisture meter which is capable of accurate readings in exotic woods. I know what all of you are thinking... how has a planemaker gone on this long without one? I will get to that - and the meter really just confirmed what I already knew (I will admit, there was a slight sigh of relief though). I have wanted a good moisture meter for a very long time now - but I could never find one that had all the right stuff. Here are some of the issues. Firstly - I could not use a pin style meter - try getting those pins 1/2" into African Blackwood... heck... try getting them out then! So I needed a pinless meter - but most of them are pre-calibrated for domestic woods and will not work with Exotics. The problem is the specific gravity of most exotic woods is so much higher than even our hardest domestic hardwood that the readings will not be accurate. Enter the CT808 pinless meter from Electrophysics!

This meter allows the user to compensate for specific gravity - from 0.2 up to 1.5. This changed everything! Take cherry for example; the specific gravity of black cherry is .50 roughly half the density of water (which is 1.0 - and the reason it floats). I set the gravity setting on the meter to .50 and took a reading in a cherry board - 7% moisture. I then took the meter to a piece of African Blackwood - 15%. The trouble is - when I adjust the specific gravity to 1.2 (the correct gravity for Blackwood) - I get 7% moisture. The ability to adjust the relative gravity was the key I needed.

So I ran around the shop checking everything. The first piece I checked was an old piece of Rosewood. Specific gravity of 0.8... moisture content... 6%? That can't be right. Changed the gravity to 1.0 to check my recent Ebony purchase - 8%... Blackwood - 1.2... moisture content 7%... ok... is this meter even working? So I adjusted the gravity back to .50 to test a piece of cherry I know is wet... phew... 18%.

All is right with the world - my wood really is that dry.

Thanks R2.

Blep-bloop-bloop bleep


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Monday 11 February 2008

Desert ironwood No.4

This is the first time I have ever had the pleasure of working with Desert ironwood - and I have to say - it was really, really cool stuff to work with! This was also one of the rare occasions where I used supplied wood from the customer. Which brings up an aspect of planemaking that is by far the most challenging... finding appropriately dry wood. This wood prompted the purchase of a moisture meter specifically designed for exotic woods. I will be writing about the meter in another entry - but the quick answer is this ironwood had a moisture content of 7%.

The wood itself is extremely dense - with a specific gravity of 1.20. To put that into perspective, pure water is 1.0 - so this stuff will sink. Here is a site that has technical information for most of the domestic and tropical woods.

Working with Desert ironwood reminded me of working with African Blackwood and Honduran Rosewood. It planes well - but will wear an edge quickly, works beautifully with rasps & files and can be sanded and polished to a stunning finish. A little stinky to work with though.

This plane has bronze sides, a 2" wide, high carbon steel iron and a bed angle of 52.5 degrees.


Anonymous Anonymous said...

That is beautiful, the ironwood looks perfect for the look on this one buddy.

I know the smell well of ironwood, I turn it now and then and use it on several pen designs I really does finish well doesn't it!

Take care,

11 February 2008 at 19:19  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hey Jim,

Thanks. I am quite pleased with how this one turned out. Have you found a good source for ironwood... I think I am going to need to get some more:)

Take care,

11 February 2008 at 22:35  

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Friday 1 February 2008

A Yataiki saw arrives.

For years now - I have owned, used and struggled with various Japanese saws. Specifically Dozuki's. Struggled because I could not quite get the hang of using them. I always thought it was because I had spent too much time using western style saws and could not change my habits. So my few Dozuki's hung on the wall. I looked over at them from time to time - and even tried them every now and again - with similar disappointing results.

I was lamenting this situation to a good friend a while ago and he offered to send me one of his saws to try out. The saw arrived on January 7. Now this is not just any saw - it was made by Yataiki. I was pretty overwhelmed when it arrived - partly because of my track record with Japanese saws - but mainly because of who had made it (and has since retired from sawmaking).

There were quite a few details of the saw that really caught my attention. The first was how fine the teeth were - about 19 ppi. And the set... or should I say lack of set - there is virtually none to speak of. The blade is extremely thin - and absolutely perfectly strait.

There is a texture to the blade that is quite remarkable. The blade is tensioned by tens of thousands of little hammer strikes and then burnished. Yup - this was not an average saw.

The saw stayed in my shop for many days as I contemplated using it. Normally I don't wait to long to try out a new tool, but this one was different. I emailed my friend to let him know it had arrived safe and sound, but also to get any advise on using the saw. There were many emails sent back and forth all of which were helpful and set the stage for the first use. There were a few key pieces of advise - a relaxed grip, don't try to muscle the saw and let the saw do the work. A "relaxed grip" was described like holding a hammer. If you hold a hammer too rigidly, the striking (vibration) will hurt your arm. The grip should be relaxed enough to still control the hammer, but loose enough to keep the vibration from your wrist and arm. That was a brilliant piece of advise!

I practiced using the saw in my head - trying to anticipate how it would work. I had a few "free" hours on Jan 16th and decided to work on a few kitchen drawers. I took a deep breath - and finally tried the saw. I was not prepared for the results - it was perfect. I mean truly perfect! The start of the cut was smooth and clean and the saw tracked flawlessly leaving a clean and very thin kerf. And it cut fast. I was using the saw to cut the tails on the 1/2" hard maple drawer sides.

As I was using the saw, I noticed I was feeling for the straightest pull stroke - making sure I was not introducing a twist or lateral forces on the blade. The lack of set makes this really really easy to do. I cut a few kerfs and they all turned out perfectly. There was one kerf that did not follow the line perfectly, but instead of trying to correct for it - I let the saw cut along the started path. The words of my friend not to muscle the saw were ringing through my head at this point. In the end, that kerf was only off by a degree or two - all part of the story of hand cut dovetails.

I decided to stack four, 1/2" thick drawer sides together and try a cut or two. Pictured above is that first kerf... just as perfect as all the others.

And another shot of another 4 drawer sides.

Here is a shot of the 4-up drawer sides in my Tucker vice. A really nice feature of this vice and set up is that I can rotate the vice so I am sawing perpendicular to the floor.

Now for the really sad news. As I mentioned earlier, Yataiki is now retired - he is no longer making saws. As far as I know - he did not have an apprentice. If you ever have an opportunity to try one of his saws - or a handmade saw from another maker - you owe it to yourself to try it. I feel incredibly blessed to have been given this opportunity to use one of his saws.


Anonymous Anonymous said...

Amazing saw, isn't it?

I asked Kayoko over a year ago if Yataiki still made saws, and placed an order. My two saws (one rip, like yours, the other one crosscut) arrived last month, I was expecting them in the spring, talk about a wonderful Christmas present!

The rip saw is everything you said, and more... As a test, I made end grain cuts in a really hard piece of 5/8" maple, with the board protruding about 8" above the vise. I first made a cut with the LV Rip Dozuki (the best machine made saw I know of, and I've tried a good number of them). The LV saw skipped and chattered for the first few strokes at the beginning of the cut, which is to be expected with the setup I had. Then I tried the Yataiki. No chattering, no skipping, the saw just went to work... Amazing...

I don't know if it's wishful thinking, but it's as if you feel which tooth is doing the cut at any point in the stroke, such is the feedback of that saw...

The crosscut saw is another marvel. That someone can file complex teeth that small, by hand, just blows me away. And the cut... I swear that it's as if the surface of the cut has been polished! There's no way I can get such smoothness on end grain from my planes... Maybe I'll have to get one of yours :-)

The sad part is that such saws are not available anymore. I feel blessed to have been able to obtain them.


1 February 2008 at 13:31  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Denis,

I had read about your 2 saws - I think on WC. We are both very lucky people!

Karen was just here - left an hour ago - and she tried it out. She had a similar experience - totally blown away. A great comment about the feedback - I know exactly what you mean.

When Karen was wasting out the test pins she was cutting - the sides of the wedges (waste) were like planed surfaces. I can see myself edging towards dovetails right off the saw - no paring. Great... I just dropped the gauntlet didn't I:)

Hopefully by the 15th kitchen drawers I will be a little bit closer.


2 February 2008 at 11:35  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Sounds like a great way to test drive that wonderful saw....I like the Tucker set up as well.

Denis, You are one lucky dog my friend!

2 February 2008 at 12:56  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hi Konrad--

I think I have a pretty good idea who sent you their Yataiki saw to try...

So have you worked out a "trade" yet where you can keep it since it seems to have your name all over it now?!

BTW, I placed an order a few weeks back for a larger Imai slick, so I'm gaining on you. It was nice to correspond with our dear friend, Kayoko, again. They sure don't come any nicer than her.

Hope all is well and talk to you soon.


2 February 2008 at 14:09  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

What saw(s) did you predominantly use before getting yer mitts on this one? And if one was not able to track down a Yataiki which Japanese saw would you recommend.

Take care,


2 February 2008 at 19:56  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Adam,

I suspect you are correct.

What sized slick did you order? My 3 mortising chisels arrived a week ago. They are stunning as usual - and with boxwood handles.

Kayoko certianly is as fine as they come.

Take care,

2 February 2008 at 20:33  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Michael,

I have been using Adria saws for years with very good success. I have also used old Distons in the past.

As far as other Japanese saws - I am not really sure. My experience is extremely limited - and now totally skewed. I have heard really good things about Mitsukawa's saws - but have not tried one. I would ask around - there are lots of people with much more experience and knowledge than I have.


2 February 2008 at 20:37  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

We will eventually talk one day! I'm sure of it so until then thanks for the information on the saw. I was going to ask about your chisel and how special I remember yo saying about them. Anything that you could offer as where to get them know that the have changed distribution or something like that.

So Thanks again,

2 February 2008 at 22:07  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


To be honest, I forget what size I ordered...I think about 42mm maybe. It was whatever size our devious friend and "tool enabler" recommended!

You'll have to let me know how you like the mortising chisels. I thought seriously about trying them myself, but ended up going in a different direction with a couple of the Ray Iles mortisers. I really like them a lot--massive and no-nonsense. Next time I see you, I'll bring them along for you to try out.

Hope all is well up in the North Country. We have a balmy 42 degrees F here today south of the border.

Take care,

3 February 2008 at 13:32  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Yes! For once I am ahead of your greasy slope. (Thanks to your earlier entry on Imai chisels I ordered several dovetail slicks. Apparently they will be waiting for me at home this week!)

Late last year, I inquired about a Yataiki saw after finding out about Monsieur Chenard's early Christmas present. I was lucky enough to be told that there was one 210mm crosscut left.

I too admired that saw and examined it under magnification for quite some time before it touched wood. Sawing with it is smooth and effortless. The surface left behind is second to nothing I have ever seen before on endgrain!

Although I love my Western saws, the Yataiki has convinced me to expand my horizons!

4 February 2008 at 19:59  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Brad,

Greasy slope - now that is funny!

That is fantastic that you were able to get a 210mm saw! I am sure your knees are still a little wiggly like mine are. I was working on kitchen drawers on the weekend again - I am still amazed by how easily this saw cuts and tracks.

Your Imai slicks will be a perfect fit with your saw - but be warned - once you use the Imai chisels - you will be ruined... there is no going back:)

Take care,

4 February 2008 at 21:48  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Adam,

42mm is a great size - I use it all the time. To be honest - I use all of them all the time. At first I was a little cautious about using them - but am striking the finishing chisels pretty hard and they just keep cutting. I will keep you posted on the mortising chisels. I have not tuned them up yet - hopefully this week. I will bring the Imai chisels with me next time I am in Boston - maybe this spring/summer.

We have 12" of snow, it is starting to rain, and it is going to be a mess as I commute to work tomorrow morning.

Take care,

4 February 2008 at 21:52  
Blogger Brian Harrington said...

thanks for posting this, and the photos. yataiki/miyano dai endo's saws are rare, and for those who now will never be able to own one, it is something at least to see one and read about them. i would never have believed the awe and reverence these saws command had i not been so extremely fortunate to own one.
its not often in life that we are able to put to use in our craft the very very finest example of an important tool-- especially one that truly does seem to have a soul.
congratulations on your good fortune.
i had placed an order for another saw a couple years ago with kayoko, and when the blade was finally ready earlier this year, i was without the financial means to acquire it. sad, sad, sad day for me. but reading your blog makes me happy. please do tell us more about this wonder.

10 September 2008 at 17:29  
Blogger Brian Harrington said...

a wonder. one who has never had the privilege of using a yataiki saw with skill in one's craft may likely never truly understand the experience.

thanks for posting the article and the pic. please post more. these saws should not be just collector's items.

10 September 2008 at 17:31  
Blogger Konrad said...

Hi Brian,

My deepest thanks for your thoughts and comments. You have articulated it well - awe and reverence are the most appropriate words for his tools. I would not have believed it either - but feel it in the fiber of my being now that I have used one.

I suppose there are quite a few people out there now are now searching for one - I am certainly looking.

Warmest wishes,

10 September 2008 at 18:37  

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